REFERENCE – BIOGRAPHY.
Text agreed at the IV Seminar on Protected Natural Spaces and
Mountain Sports. Covadonga, 21 April 2007.
Mountaineering has been linked since its origins in Spain and Europe to a
desire to explore and get to know the natural environment through the practice of an activity
whose essence passes through respect for nature and the learning of
positive values and attitudes for the person and society.
The pioneers of mountaineering in our country have been mostly
geologists, botanicals, geographers and specialists in the knowledge of the territory,
who explored the mountains, to know them better, study them and give them to
understand the rest of society under the premises of respect and
The creation of the first hiking entities
(as the Catalan Association of Scientific Excursions founded in 1876,
current Hiking Center. of Catalonia, the Society for Natural Sciences
Aranzadi, the Manuel Iradier Excursionist Society or the Royal Society of
Mountaineering Peñalara, among other) have been closely linked to
scientific and natural history societies, as well as educational movements
as the Institution of Free Education.
Specific, Giner de los Ríos was one of the most prominent promoters of this Institution
and of various scientific movements, educational and recreational activities around the Sierra de
Guadarrama, that provided a new perspective on education in which the mountain was
the best school in life.
For this reason mountaineering clubs and educators of the
time converged not only in the mountains as a field of play and knowledge,
but they shared the feelings of defense of the mountain before the
degradation and the absence of an ethic of environmental defense in urban society.
The origin of mountaineering is strongly linked to the knowledge of the
medium, which is why a large number of clubs also have sections
related to natural history, popular culture, photography in the
nature or botany.
The role of these Entities and the Federations throughout
of this last century is undoubted in the field of unregulated education, as
generations of mountaineers have known the mountain through training in
values and attitudes that have many similarities with those developed by the
Environmental education (IT'S AT) in general.
After the III Seminar, held in Granada, in which mountaineering was treated
and its implications for sustainability, it was logical to develop a section that
it is increasingly important in urban society in the 21st century, and in which the
federated mountaineering collective, its entities, teachers and mountain guides have
much to propose and promote to achieve higher awareness quotas
environmental in those who want to approach landscapes by their own effort.
Any education process, environmental or not, passes by increasing the
knowledge, change sensitivity and promote new behaviors and values
regarding an issue or problem.
With Environmental Education it is intended to achieve
that people collaborate and actively participate in the resolution of the
environmental problems. Definitely, that develop more respectful practices
with the natural environment – And social, well everything is related- . In the event that we
occupies in this Seminar the capacity for action of the collective is evident
mountaineer in this matter.
Talking about Environmental Education means talking about a continuous process in the
that people acquire knowledge, modify their attitudes, acquire
new values, increase their capacity for action to develop a practice
respectful of the natural environment.
This process allows, on the one hand, to transform
positive knowledge and skills in attitudes and actions, and in turn "learn to
participate by participating ”, which means a greater capacity for action of the
mountaineering collective towards the conservation of the natural environment.
The areas where we will be involved in this process, the one with the
Environmental education, they are mainly school, family and society, and the
associative fabric, organized mountaineering is part of.
Unregulated Environmental Education transmits knowledge, attitudes and
environmental values, that lead to the adoption of positive attitudes towards the
natural and social environment, and that are translated into actions of care and respect for the
biological and cultural diversity.
This transmission process is the common
denominator of the anonymous work of hundreds of mountain clubs, federations,
sports schools and guides responsible for taking groups into nature.
The current situation of mountaineering in relation to the
environmental awareness, reflecting on the actions to come
developing, to propose measures and channels that improve social work
educational that he has been practicing for more than 130 years mountaineering in Spain
Mountaineering and the natural environment
1.- Mountaineering is not just a sports practice, but also a way
behavior that favors the integral development of the person and the
society providing educational and social values in relation to the natural environment.
2.- Knowledge of the natural environment where the activity takes place
sports is the basis to guarantee respectful behavior towards the environment
environment by its practitioners, also relying on protocols and
codes of good environmental practice, and in the knowledge and understanding of
current legislation that affects access and enjoyment of nature.
The role of the mountaineering group in Unregulated Environmental Education
3.- The work carried out by the mountaineering movement throughout its long
history, has served to better understand and value landscapes in a sustainable way
Mountaineering offers those who practice it a personal experience and / or collective
to experience the landscape intensely.
The different sports modalities of the
mountaineering are a good way to understand the natural environment, Through the
development of a recreational-sports activity that has a strong component of
exploration, curiosity and direct knowledge of nature.
and clubs should continue their active and responsible outreach work on the
landscapes, being necessary to take into account these motivations and needs by
part of the environmental and sports managers.
4.- The role of hiking entities, mountain clubs and
federations in relation to the child and youth sector, has been and is
fundamentally a belt for the transmission of values and as a social laboratory of
It is necessary to support these initiatives of monitors and partners that
selflessly organize from federations and clubs: camps,
crossings, courses, marches, etc., in order to promote awareness-raising actions
environmental among young practitioners.
5.- Since its inception, mountain entities have been pioneers in the world
associative in the protection and defense of mountains.
It is logical that they are present in the participation forums where it is decided, advises and plans the
spatial planning because it is the space in which they develop
6.- From the nature of the clubs, a
task of environmental dissemination and awareness at local and regional level.
The result has been the transmission of values and ethics of conduct, based on
active participation in the face of environmental problems and sports practice
This work must be strongly supported by the administrations,
to achieve greater awareness not only of the associated collective, but of
rest of society
7.- For more than a century the mountain entities and their federations
have done extensive work in the hiking publishing world, giving to
get to know landscapes and places in a hiker code, normally under the premise of
a respectful approach to nature.
This outreach task
(publications, talks, Event organization…) responsible with the environment
environment, must be complemented and coordinated with the informative actions in the
framework for the management of protected spaces and with other publishing sectors,
to obtain information with the capacity to involve users and
readers in the conservation and responsible use of natural spaces.
8.- In the wide range of mountain professionals, the guards of the
refuges carry out tasks and collaborations with the managers of natural spaces
protected, thus becoming benchmarks of environmental awareness that is
develops in these spaces.
Participation, volunteering and environmental education
9.- Participation is a fundamental tool to ensure that the
people who practice mountaineering are informed, sensitized and
trained to act in defense of the natural environment since:
• It constitutes a process by which the mountaineering collective develops
positive actions towards the natural environment and is also actively involved in the
participation bodies or other forums of Protected Natural Areas.
• It allows the mountaineering group to become an element that
communicates the importance of conserving the natural environment to its members and
society in general and encourages other people to make that commitment.
• Collaborate in a better diagnosis of the problems of the environment, a
greater contribution of solutions or binding tasks for all since they have been
• The mountaineer's knowledge of the environmental reality in which
develops its activity, constitutes a very valuable resource for education
10.- Environmental volunteering in Spain has a broad base that comes from
in part of the mountaineering collective and, so, should be the subject of special attention
and support, especially in protected natural areas.
1. Work all parties involved in improving education
climbers under the guidelines and trends of the latest
national and international conferences on the environment that propose
advance towards sustainability through the participation of all agents
involved (federations, administrations, local population, etc.).
2. It is necessary to disseminate and promote among public administrations and
non-profit associations (ONG, sports, environmental, cultural,
juveniles, etc.) the important work carried out by the clubs and
mountaineering federations in terms of introductory mountaineering courses and
techniques of knowledge of the environment, as a respectful strategy to bring the
citizen to nature.
3. Mountaineering activity has traditionally been characterized by
practice a set of values and behaviors that are respectful towards the environment
environment, that must be maintained and promoted in all its manifestations
sports (competitions, courses, Departures, crossings, bivouac ascents ...).
Environmental administrations and sports federations must work to
disseminate codes of good environmental practice, in order to spread
more effectively the messages and attitudes between the federated collective and all
those groups that are concerned about the mountains.
4. Regulated and recognized training within the scope of the Ministry of
Education has its maximum expression in the Royal Decree 1913/1997, of 19 of
December, by which the teachings of a special regime are configured
leading to obtaining qualifications for sports technicians. Mountaineering
has become part
– a decade ago- of the formal educational environment and, within
of his training, including training in Environment at the curricular level,
especially the environmental awareness and interpretation modules.
Sports schools and administrations should support these degrees and
establish collaboration channels between the managers of public use of the
protected natural areas and mountain professionals, to help
better training in this matter, which will result in the transmission of
environmental values and attitudes to the people they guide.
5. The network of long and short trails currently has
signposted more than 50.000 kilometers in Spain following rules and a
technical approval procedure.
This network of hiking itineraries is a good tool for society to
get close to nature in a safe and respectful way. It is interesting that since
management bodies of protected natural areas support and advise for
ensure that these itineraries have greater content of environmental interpretation;
especially on the trails
local and short distance that can be used for the simple transmission of
environmental knowledge and attitudes.
Likewise, greater coordination should be sought between the federations and the
environmental administrations in relation to the promotion and marking of new trails.
6. The irruption of new technologies in society opens a field of
very interesting performance in the field of environmental education, especially
through IT tools and information networks, what should
provide federations and clubs with a working environment to communicate and inform
in a responsible and sustainable way to its associates and the rest of society.
7. It should be promoted from the federative sphere and the organisms
public the approach to nature through sports practices does not
motorized – always within the established regulation- that suppose a
sustainable way of getting to know the mountains, helping with these good
environmental practices to the reduction of atmospheric pollution and the
mountain conservation in the face of climate change threats.
8. Federations and administrations must promote and support
Documentation centers linked to the mountain. The objectives will be to update
and disseminate existing services in environmental education, and serve as a tool
and advice to teachers and entities. Public administrations
can help with the creation and maintenance of these documentation centers
through collaboration framework agreements.
9. We must bet on increasing training programs
continuous development by federations for teachers (teachers, technicians,
guides, guards, club monitors, etc.) in relation to matters of education and
environmental awareness, through agreements between federations and
competent public administrations in the environment, education and sports.
In the same way, the collaboration of the federations will continue to be supported
institutions of higher education and research, facilitating access, study
and environmental assessment of ENP, accentuating its social function.
10. The programs and plans for Public Use and Environmental Education in the
ENP, should promote the active participation of federations and clubs in
everything related to the disclosure of rules for public use, promoting the
good organization of sports activities in nature and the formation of
those responsible and associates in environmental matters.
11. The reception facilities of the ENP, as well as the shelters of
mountain should be integrated into educational programs, informative and
interpretive, and serve as a support for the dissemination of messages that induce
attitudes of greater respect for the environment, promoting active participation
of visitors, in general, and of the mountaineers, in particular.
12. In this context, the implementation of meetings or meetings is proposed
specific periodicals between managers of natural spaces and federations of
mountaineering (as a platform for socio-environmental communication), for
mutually promote environmental awareness programs and actions, that
promote in these spaces attitudes and values respectful of nature and
compatible with the practice of mountain sports.